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Esophageal (Oesophageal) Cancer

İzmir Özafagus Kanseri

The esophagus is a tubular muscular organ that extends from the pharynx to the stomach. It is responsible for transporting food and drinks taken by mouth from the mouth to the stomach. It is about 25 cm long on average. There are specialized muscles along the esophagus that prevent food from escaping upwards when food is not eaten and these are called sphincters. Gastroesophageal reflux may develop in lower sphincter failure. There are two common symptoms of esophageal diseases: dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) and back/chest pain.

What is the Esophagus?

The incidence of esophageal cancer varies widely around the world. There are 2 types of esophageal cancer. One of them is squamous cell cancer originating from the inner wall of the esophagus.  It is generally seen in the middle and upper esophagus. The other is adenocarcinoma, which develops from the lower end of the esophagus at the junction with the stomach due to chronic reflux.

Esophageal (Oesophageal) Cancer

- Advanced age: The incidence of esophageal cancer increases after the age of 60

- Male gender: the incidence of esophageal cancer in men is 3 times higher

- Social / Economic / Ethnic distribution: Squamous cell carcinomas are more common in smokers and alcohol users, in areas with high consumption of hot foods, in Asians and African Americans, while adenocarcinomas are associated with obesity and reflux and are more common in Caucasians.

- Smoking

- Alcohol intake

- Barrett's esophagus: Barrett's esophagus is a change in the cell type of the lower esophagus due to chronic acid reflux from the stomach.

- Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

- Exposure to chemicals: such as ingestion of caustic substances

- Achalasia, Tylosis, Plummer Vinson

Esophageal (Oesophageal) Cancer Risk Factors


Mutlu Ünver

İzmir in En iyi kanser Cerrahı Doç.Dr.Mutlu Ünver

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mutlu Ünver graduated from Ege University Faculty of Medicine. Mutlu Ünver, who completed his specialty training in Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, serves his patients in his own clinic.

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Özafagus Kanseri Belirtileri

Esophageal cancer is a disease whose diagnosis may be delayed due to late symptoms and signs. Therefore, the cancer may be in an advanced stage when diagnosed. The first symptom is usually difficulty swallowing. As the tumor grows, swallowing food or drinks becomes difficult and may be painful. Other symptoms of esophageal cancer are pain in the chest or back, weight loss, bleeding, dark stools, cough, hoarseness.

Esophageal (Oesophageal) Cancer Symptoms

Like all cancers, esophageal cancer should be staged after diagnosis. Staging is done by looking at conditions such as surrounding tissue spread, lymph node spread or spread to distant organs (metastasis). And treatment is given according to the stage of the disease. Surgery can be performed minimally invasively (closed method) or open method. The current more common method is the minimally invasive method using laparoscopy and thoracoscopy. The cancerous part of the esophagus is surgically removed. After removal, part of the stomach or large intestine is pulled upwards into the chest to maintain the continuity of the digestive system. Preoperative chemotherapy and sometimes radiotherapy can be applied before surgery to reduce the size of advanced esophageal cancers and make them suitable for surgery. In addition, systemic chemotherapy can be given to patients after the operation, depending on the pathological examination report of the removed tumor.

Esophageal (Oesophageal) Cancer Treatment

There is no specific method for prevention of esophageal cancer in general. However, prevention can be achieved by eliminating risk factors.

Esophageal Cancer Prevention

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